Interest rate swaps (IRS) are often considered a number of NAPs, but this view is technically incorrect due to the diversity of methods for calculating cash payments, resulting in very small price differentials. ADFs are not loans and are not agreements to lend an amount to another party on an unsecured basis at a pre-agreed interest rate. Their nature as an IRD product produces only the effect of leverage and the ability to speculate or secure interests. Many banks and large companies will use GPs to cover future interest rate or exchange rate commitments. The buyer opposes the risk of rising interest rates, while the seller protects himself against the risk of lower interest rates. Other parties that use interest rate agreements are speculators who only want to bet on future changes in interest rates.  Development swaps of the 1980s offered organizations an alternative to FRAs for protection and speculation. In other words, a Discount Rate Agreement (FRA) is a short-term, tailored and agreed-upon financial futures contract. A transaction fra is a contract between two parties for the exchange of payments on a deposit, the notional amount, which must be determined later on the basis of a short-term interest rate called the benchmark rate over a predetermined period. FRA transactions are introduced as a hedge against changes in interest rates. The buyer of the contract blocks the interest rate to protect against an interest rate hike, while the seller protects against a possible drop in interest rates. At maturity, no funds exchange hands; On the contrary, the difference between the contractual interest rate and the market interest rate is exchanged. The purchaser of the contract is paid when the published reference rate is higher than the fixed rate agreed by contract and the buyer pays the seller if the published reference rate is lower than the fixed rate agreed by contract.
A company trying to guard against a possible interest rate hike would buy FRAs, while a company seeking interest coverage against a possible interest rate cut would sell FRAs. [3×9 dollars – 3.25/3.50%p.a ] means that interest rates on deposits from 3 months are 3.25% for 6 months and that the interest rate from 3 months is 3.50% for 6 months (see also the spread of the refund application). The entry of an « FRA payer » means paying the fixed rate (3.50% per year) and obtaining a fluctuating rate of 6 months, while the entry of an « R.C. beneficiary » means paying the same variable rate and obtaining a fixed rate (3.25% per year). The money for differential value on an FRA exchanged between the two parties, calculated from the perspective of the sale of an FRA (imitating the obtaining of the fixed interest rate) is calculated as follows: N`displaystyle is the fictitious part of the contract, r`displaystyle R` fixed set, r`displaystyle r` is the published -IBOR and `Displaystyle` set of the decimal fraction of number of days above which is the value of the start and end date of the set -IBOR.